Each currently available test for cortisol offers providers different pieces of the HPA-axis puzzle. Salivary testing is often favored because it has been the only way to test the diurnal pattern of free cortisol. Urine testing typically does not include this information but does add an important piece to the puzzle--cortisol metabolites. Serum testing lacks both of these pieces of information for adrenal assessment. When providers assess HPA-axis function in complex cases, a more comprehensive approach (one that includes the information available in saliva and urine testing) helps practitioners in making clinical decisions. Along with discussing the pros and cons of each available testing modality, a new model of testing adrenal hormones (employed by multiple clinical labs) will be proposed to improve the comprehensiveness of adrenal testing. Case studies that highlight the types of scenarios that may require more comprehensive testing for proper assessment will be presented.