The family of proteins called Nuclear Factor Kappa B act as the centralintracellular switch that turns on DNA to make a variety of proteins (enzymes and cytokines) involved in defending and repairing the body against infection and injury. Appropriate NFKB function is critical to health, but overactivation is implicated in a variety of chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and autoimmune disease. In the wake of the COX-2 debacle, pharmaceutical companies are now shifting their emphasis to developing drugs that suppress NFKB. As it turns out, a wide range of botanicals, such as Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum and Tanacetum parthenium have been found to modulate NFBK without inappropriate suppression. This lecture will show how these cutting edge discoveries from molecular biology research have major implications for practicing clinical herbalists.